November 13, 2014
2 min read

Onyx V2 – Security Update is out!

Due to some issues that were brought up by a researcher, we’ve revised the Darksend protocol extensively to enhance the anonymity provided. It’s very important that all clients on the Dash network update.

Users Required To Update:

Darksend Users
Normal Clients

Changes made in this release:

– Masternodes can now make a limited number of zero-fee transaction for Darksend. These are special transactions that require a signature that only the masternodes can create.
– Darksend now has no fees to track what-so-ever, all that will ever be in Darksend transactions are Darksend denominations.
– Added queue gaming protection
– Clients remember which masternodes they’ve connected to in the past and won’t use them against.
– Dsee/Dseep messages have been fixed so they only take newer signatures than the one they have
– 2 different kinds of client crashes have been fixed
– Split up main.cpp into core.cpp
– Split up darksend.cpp into masternode.cpp, activemasternode.cpp and instantx.cpp
– Added modular ProcessMessages for Darksend, Masternodes and InstantX
– Client can now join sessions with any other users

November 3, 2014
3 min read

CEX.IO Offers Dash Trading

In the afttermath of the recent Moolah/Mintpal bankruptcy case, the altcoin community has ramped up their search for secure and stable exchanges. Whilst some standard exchanges continue to function adequately, an all too often overlooked alternative is CEX.IO. CEX.IO acts not just as a cloud mining provider (as many associate it with), but also as an exchange. It includes a number of useful trading pairs, including Dollars/Euros. Also, of special interest to the altcoin community, is the fact that is has firmly adopted Dash. CEX.IO was an early believer in Dash. Now, after extensive testing, CEX.IO is now challenging the traditional exchanges by offering Dash. This event follows a general pattern of Dash adoption in the cryptocurrency economy.

What does this mean? Now, Dash and all supported cryptocurrency users are able to migrate their cloud mining operations to the same site as they conduct their trading, thereby making the entire process seamless. Both mining and trading are streamlined through a beautiful interface. For Dash traders CEX.IO offers a strong alternative, opening up new opportunities such as trading Dash to fiat alongside their Dash mining operations. Debate concerning where to reliably trade Dash might finally be answered thanks for the faith CEX.IO has shown in Dash.

CEX.IO is a London-based Bitcoin crypto exchange and the first cloud mining service. As an exchange, CEX.IO has a wide variety of trading pairs, including fiat money (USD and EUR), cryptocurrencies and mining commodities (GHS or Bitcoin cloud mining power). CEX.IO works in conjunction with the largest Bitcoin mining pool — GHash.IO, and is trusted by over 300,000 users from all over the world.

Media Contact: [email protected]
Future Press Releases:

October 16, 2014
12 min read

Onyx (10.15.16) Release Now Available


This update includes a fork, all daemons and stratum deployments must update their code to pay the correct masternodes and correct reward amounts.

Software Updates:

Stratum Users:

NOMP Users:

P2Pool Users:

***EDIT (12/19/14): Outdated links have been removed. Please update to the most current version from the Downloads page or GitHub repository.***

Deployment Schedule:

Immediately: Enforcement will be turned off, allowing for pools to update their software without risk of orphaned blocks

Oct 23, 2014: Rewards will step up to 25%. Dash users are encouraged to contact pools that have not updated and politely ask them to update.

Nov 14, 2014: Enforcement will be turned on, any pools that have not update will have their blocks rejected.

Who Needs To Update?

All Dash users must update their clients.

What’s New?

Part of securing the Dash network is creating a strong and healthy network of full nodes to back it up. These nodes provide many tasks for users such as propagating messages, syncing clients and mixing users funds via Darksend.

To make the network resistant to attack we required these nodes to hold 1000DASH (these coins are held in a completely trustless way in cold storage in most cases, so they can’t be stolen). In return for holding the coins and running the node, these users are paid 20% of the block reward.

Security for Darksend and InstantX is provided by selecting masternodes deterministically from the total set, then using multiple of these nodes to make decisions. Vastly greater security becomes possible when you add more nodes due to the cost associated with controlling a majority of said nodes. For statistical analysis of this please checkout the InstantX whitepaper .

Increasing Rewards Schedule

With this release we will progressively change the reward to incentivize the creation of more masternodes, this should strengthen the network and protect it from sybil attacks making it more expensive for attackers to control an important portion of the nodes.

This is also key for instant transaction confirmations to be a reality, the network needs to be robust enough to handle a large amount of transactions as we strive for adoption on real world applications. The features that give value to Dash need to be protected as that is what will ensure the long term success of the project for the benefit of all Dash supporters, current and those that will join DASH in the future.


*Currently there are 900 active masternodes. Numbers are expected to increase as profitability rises.
** ROI calculation is ((1/t)*b*(r*s)*365)/1000

t = Total number of masternodes
b = Blocks per day on average (576 for Dash)
r = Average reward per block
s = Masternode mining share

Steady Payments and Proof-of-Service

Another issue in the past has been the volatility in return due to the random nature of masternode payments. This is being dealt with by creating an algorithm to pay the masternodes evenly. Each masternode can expect a payment every N blocks with a variance of about 10%.

Also included in this release is a framework that we can build a true proof-of-service platform on. This means only masternodes actually providing services will be paid for those services.

To only pay active masternodes, pay masternodes evenly and ensure that all pools pay the correct node and amount we’ve introduced a new type of node, the reference node. This node has a special key that allows it to tell the network which nodes get paid, on which blocks in the future. Anyone on the network can verify these nodes are doing their job (i.e. not tampering with the results) by running the code and comparing the payee’s due to the deterministic algorithm used. In case of DDOS or a service failure, the network default to paying random masternodes as it does now.

This setup is non-exploitable and will serve as a mechanism of enforcement till we can revisit this in the future. A better future solution would be an in-blockchain voting mechanism like RC3 or a second blockchain updated by the miners that stores the masternode list.

Masternode Setup

Flare’s Trustless Masternode Hosting Service:

Yidakee’s Service:…tup-services-ghostplayer-on-bitcointalk.1633/

MangledBlue’s Service:

How To Guide:

How To Guide 2:

Just for fun:

Darksend Improvements

Recently after open sourcing, Darksend has been undergoing an exhaustive evaluation of it’s security to many different kinds of attacks. This update includes over 15 measures to prevent abuses of the system and keep it healthy.

To prevent such attacks, we require users to post a collateral payment to the masternode they wish to use. Parts of the Darksend process in the past were not using this protective measures and were quickly identified and attacked. This update includes many improvements to the way collateral is used to make attacking expensive.

One of the notable improvements is that collateral transactions pay the fee directly to miners. This creates a situation where to double spend attack the collateral transaction, one would have to pay a higher fee to the miners. Since the collateral fee is payed to the miners already, double spending attacks against the system are impossible.

What’s next?

We had to take a short detour from InstantX to focus on Darksend after it gained enough attention to be actively attacked by our competitors. Now that we’re confident of the security of the system, we’ll be moving back to working on InstantX.

The first version of InstantX will be a soft-fork. It will simply show when transactions have been successfully validated by the observer network. This will give us some real world testing of the framework.

We have some other projects and exciting things in the works. We’ll be announcing those in the following months.


October 21, 2014 Update: 15.14 Adds a fix for a DOS style attack against the masternode list that was attempted earlier today. This attack didn’t result in any harm to the network or extra payments for the attacker.

October 22, 2014 Update 15.15:

There have been some masternode stability problems (masternodes not staying active on the network) for some users, this was caused by the masternode operators changing the masternodeprivkey and then starting the masternode again. This lead to some of the networking have one pinging key and parts of the network having another. This update fixes that issue and will allow masternodes to change that key. Because of this issue clients were flagging peers as misbehaving, eventually leading to them being banned, causing network fragmentation, which lead to other issues on the network.

An alternative solution is to move the 1000DASH input to a brand new address that the network has not seen. Then start the masternode normally. Once the network updates to v15.15, we won’t have these issues anymore.


At block 158,000 masternode rewards will jump to 25%, if more than 80% of the network is updating and paying the correct rewards enforcement will be activated then. From the looks of it, we’re very close to those numbers already. Once enforcement is active, payments will be completely 100% fair and equal between all masternodes.

October 22, 2014 Update 15.16:

After some more inspection I found there were multiple Masternode announcement messages propagating around the network. This update filters out all but the newest one to ensure the list is correct and up-to-date. It’s not manditory to update, but please do if you can. Last update till InstantX

October 10, 2014
5 min read

Dash Now Trading at CCEDK, a Danish exchange renowned for its security, have announced that they are now accepting Dash. Trading with Dash will include, amongst others, trading pairs such as the Euro and the Russian ruble, opening up further possibilities for Dash’s increasing popularity. is presented as the first crime-free cryptocurrency trading platform. Boasting a dual-language English/Russian interface it is aimed at a wide audience, but has often been overlooked. Notably there are plans for further interfaces in Spanish, Portuguese, German, French, Danish and Chinese suggesting expansion is on the horizon.

Their security-conscious approach is likely to be welcomed as cryptocurrency users become more cautious in the face of well-known exchange collapses such as Mt. Gox. To counter such a possibility keeps a reserve fund, amounting to thirty-percent ofthe crypto currencies revenue, to protect their customers in the case of losses. This is a major innovation akin to how major banks refund the victims of fraud that grants customers a degree of security in the event of being targeted by criminal elements. As more and more users of cryptocurrencies begin to enter the marketplace it is important that more institutions take financial security into consideration.

In terms of trading the site has promised Skrill integration in the coming months which will make depositing fiat a breeze. Also impressive is the range of fiat currencies which can be used including Danish/Norwegian kroner, British pounds, US dollars and Euros, accounts can be funded SWIFT wire transfers, SEPA, and Deposit and withdraw in RUB/UAH/EUR/USD, using more than 150 payment options in terms of funding with the Payment Service Provider Payee!

One notable feature of is the remarkable degree of transparency on offer. They are confident enough to post the details of their lawyer and they are clear that they will follow the Single Euro Payment Area (SEPA) regulations to help integrate cryptocurrency trading into the mainstream, including its regulations. With this layer of legal adherence a core feature of the site it is clear will emerge as one of the safest exchanges and is surely a strong recommendation when tempting newcomers into the world of cryptocurrency.

It is worth noting that the security of can be usefully combined with the privacy offered by specific cryptocurrencies and, in particular, that of Dash. This coin already has a large following in Europe and is gaining further traction in Russia, Ukraine, Poland and many others. In this manner is the perfect home for Dash trading given its dual-language interface. Dash, which anonymizes transactions if one chooses, has slowly emerged as the major alternative to Bitcoin and with new innovations appearing daily it is grow even further. As Dash enters the mainstream alongside secure and transparent exchanges such as we will find ourselves in the mature position of combining financial security with financial privacy opening up cryptocurrency to ever wider adoption.

Petra Stolle

[email protected]

October 7, 2014
2 min read

Please Update To v10.14.1 – Masternode Security Update

****** Due to an attack on the network, we’ve patched the masternode list syncing functionality. ***

This attack was a simple exploitation of the fact that we were not checking that the signing key correctly, and it was possible to sign with an invalid key. This resulted in the attacker gaining control of the majority of the masternode list for a short period of time. As soon as users update and restart their clients, the network will return to normal.

– This update simply verifies that the signature was not forged and that the masternodes entering the list are authentic.
– After the patch was applied, there were 857 masternodes active.

All users please update to the latest binaries as soon as possible! Thanks


10.14.1 RC5 Binaries: All Users

Windows .exe:
Mac OSX:


Further discussion at Dashtalk:

October 1, 2014
9 min read

Development Update – October 1, 2014

Darksend seems to be very stable and now that we’re open source and we’ve passed an audit I think it’s time to work on some other functionality. We’re working out of development plan for the next weeks weeks and here’s what we have so far.

Masternode Security

There are a few things that are missing in Dash to properly implement InstantX). One of the greatest objections to InstantX from the Bitcoin community was the possibility to DOS the selected masternodes that are responsible for consensus voting.

This would stop the consensus voting forcing the network to evaluate transactions using the mining network, bring the first confirmation from 10-20 seconds back to 2.5 minutes. While not a terrible issue, it’s something we can deal with by hiding the masternode identities and using a token based routing system to pass messages back and forth. This will be discussed in great detail in the v2 of the Dash whitepaper.

To build a network that can withstand attacks, the masternodes must not publish their IPs. To do this we’re going to utilize a new multipath communication technology. This will add another layer of privacy to the system as it will allow users to communicate with the network securely without exposing their IPs and will also hide the identity of the Darksend mixing nodes making it extremely difficult, if not impossible, for third parties to spy on users information.

It uses multi-path routing so users can send more than one encrypted message using different routes on the mesh network for redundancy. This will allow us quick communication, robustness and anonymous two way communication.

The diagram below shows the new system in action:



Currently there is a very basic version of enforcement that is going to be enabled soon.

The strategy employed by Dash currently to protect masternode payments is definitely not a perfect solution and wasn’t meant to stay in this form forever. While it does make cheating much more difficult, it’s still remains possible.

The next version of enforcement will be a huge improvement over this current version and will introduce much greater security.

Masternode Reward Structure

The Dash network relies heavily on the strength of the Masternode network. They are the foundation of our currency in provide great value to the network. Whether it be serving the blocks to a client that is syncing or proving the services such as Darksend and InstantX.

While writing the whitepaper for InstantX and v2 of Dash, I’ve realized that the network would gain an incredible amount of security by increasing the amount of running Masternodes. When originally envisioned, the target number of masternodes was 2000-3000. I’ve waited some time to see if the amount of active Masternodes will increase alone, but I’m beginning to think some tweaking is in order.

The number of Masternodes reaches an equilibrium with the price of Dash and the ROI of running a node over a period of time. Currently we have about 900 total Masternodes (some haven’t updated to RC5 yet, but you can see the stats here), with this amount of nodes each has a ROI of 23%

It can be calculated with: ((a/b)*c*d*e)/1000)
a is the amount of Masternodes you control
b is the total amount of Masternodes
c is the amount of blocks per day
d is the days in a year
e is payment per block won

So with that in mind the current profitability can be calculated by

((1/900.0)*576*365*(5*.20))/1000 = 0.23 (23% per year ROI in DASH)

The reward of 23% can be thought of as the current equilibrium that the network has found. So it is expected that no matter the reward structure, the network will come to rest as this level.

If our goal is to gain more Masternodes to improve the overall security of the network, I propose increasing the reward structure for Masternodes by 5% every month until the optimal amount of Masternodes is reached. This can be thought of as a type of price discovery. It’s also worth noting, by adding 5% rewards per month we’ll have a decreasing amount of impact each month thereafter. From 20% to 25% is a 25% change, from 25% to 30% is a 20% change, then 16.6%, 14.2%, 12.5%, etc. This will allow a good deal of reaction time.

This also means that Dash must be purchased in order to start new Masternodes. This doesn’t include Masternodes selling their existing node’s Dash in order to cash out (that wouldn’t change the Masternode total count). Considering this, we should see very long term steady growth, gain a lot of media attention and gain real-world adoption.

I believe this update will be great for Dash by increasing the security of InstantX and Darksend, while providing significant growth for Dash. An update like this requires a very solid version of enforcement along with updates to the daemon to tell the pool operators how much Dash is suppose to be paid to the current Masternode operator.


Can’t we just decrease the amount required to run a Masternode:

PS. Thanks to BabyGiraffe for inspiring this conversation about Masternode Payments.

September 29, 2014
3 min read

Open Source Announcement and Future Plans

Hello Everyone!

Today, September 29, 2014 Darksend was completely open sourced. This means that we’re no longer going to be using the “release candidate” labels and we’re considering Darksend to be stable enough to leave beta. Also, the development community can come together to improve and refine Darksend, build backends that utilize it and enhance the Masternode technology adding even more functionality.

We’ve been busy the last few weeks working on development plans for the next six to twelve months and we’re happy to announce these today.

Masternode Hardening

To build a network that can withstand attacks, the masternodes must not publish their IPs. To do this we’re going to utilize a new multipath communication technology. This will add another layer of privacy to the system as it will allow users to communicate with the network securely without exposing their IPs and will also hide the identity of the Darksend mixing nodes making it extremely difficult, if not impossible, for third parties to spy on users information.

It uses multi-path routing so users can send more than one encrypted message using different routes on the mesh network for redundancy. This will allow us quick communication, robustness and anonymous two way communication.

The diagram below shows the new system in action:

We’re currently building the foundation for instant transactions and other secret projects that we’re not ready to announce yet. We’ll see you on testnet soon!

The Dash Development Team

September 29, 2014
4 min read

Press release: Dash Solves Bitcoin Privacy Challenges; Releases Open Source Code

Dash is designed to ensure financial privacy by making it virtually impossible to trace a transaction back to its source. This is accomplished with a key piece of technology called Darksend, which works by mixing up the digital fingerprints of the user’s coins. Darksend’s technology is based on the Masternode Network, currently 900+ decentralized servers spread around the world and maintained by Dash supporters.

Darksend was developed as a closed-source technology while the kinks were worked out and bugs were squashed. Following last Monday’s release of the newest version of Dash, called RC5, the developers of Dash are confident that their software is ready to meet the rigors of mainstream use and has opened the Darksend source code. Dash is now the first fully open-source cryptocurrency with financial privacy built directly into the software.

Open-sourcing of a financial software such as Dash is vitally important. It allows people to be confident that their financial privacy is protected and leads to increased confidence in the quality and performance of the software. Furthermore, anyone can now go through the code and build upon it, as it has been done over the years with Bitcoin.

The core developer of Dash, Evan Duffield has also announced that the privacy functionality of Dash has moved out of the beta stages of development ending the “release candidate” label. Dash is now ready for mainstream, real-world use.

Future updates to Dash are expected every few months, and will include such things as encrypted multipath communication technology, which is already in the works, this will add another layer of privacy to the system as it will allow users to communicate with the network securely without exposing their IPs and will also hide the identity of the Darksend mixing nodes making it extremely difficult, if not impossible, for third parties to spy on users information. It uses multi-path routing so users can send more than one encrypted message using different routes on the mesh network for redundancy.

But perhaps the most anticipated new feature is the Instant Transaction confirmation system, described here: [Transaction Locking and Masternode Consensus: A Mechanism for Mitigating Double Spending Attacks], which will allow Dash to compete with credit cards in terms of transaction speed. The release of Instant Transaction technology will also make Dash the fastest-confirming cryptocurrency in the industry.

Media Contact: [email protected]
Future Press Releases:


September 22, 2014
3 min read



RC5 is officially available for download!

This is a large update to the stability of Darksend, including:

– Enforcement of masternode payments
– Vastly improved effectiveness of the anonymity provided by Darksend (due to the audit of Kristov)
– Improved speed of Darksend
– Prepared code for open sourcing
– Added Darksend overview screen so users can see what’s happening

This is the last release candidate we’ll have. Open sourcing will happen in one week! After this, we’ll have the community name releases and be doing a 2-3 month release schedule.

For all changes, please see the changelog:

What’s next for Dash?

Next we’re going to start working on a demo version of Instant Transactions ( It’s going to take a lot of work to lay the foundation, soon
after we’ll be calling for some testnet users to try it out and report back.

Other improvements in the works include fixing DOS hardening for the Masternode network and Darksend.

How To Use Darksend (Thanks vertoe!)

Please update to RC5!

Source: Compile if you are running a pool, exchange, etc.

9.13.15 (Stable) Binaries: Does not include Darksend

Windows installer:…ies/master/darkcoin-
Mac OSX:…in-binaries/master/darkcoin-

10.13.15 (RC) Binaries: Includes Darksend – Masternode Operators

Windows .exe:…inaries/master/rc/
Mac OSX:…inaries/master/rc/darkcoin-

Thanks to everyone who submited tickets and tested the system tirelessly! We couldn’t have done it without all of you.


The Dash Team

September 20, 2014
4 min read

Dash Passes Security Review, Prepares to Open Source

Security researcher Kristov Atlas has concluded his code review and security audit of Dash. He was solicited by the developers of Dash, based on 4+ years of professionally reviewing C/C++ software, to review the code and suggest any changes which could improve the software. Kristov Atlas concluded that Dash’s claims of functional anonymity are well-founded. He did suggest a few concerns, which the Dash team immediately fixed (the fixes will be released Monday as part of the next scheduled update to the Dash client). Mr. Atlas’ primary concern was that a bad actor could launch a so-called Sybil attack against the network. Evan Duffield, lead developer of Dash, closed this potential attack vector and in doing so also found a way to increase the overall anonymity of Dash transactions.

The new update to Dash, “Release Candidate 5” (RC5), will be made publicly available Monday, September 22. It fixes the concerns raised by Mr. Atlas, increases anonymity, fixes bugs, and improves the user experience by implementing a new interface. After eight months of continuous improvement, the developers of Dash are confident that the currency is finally ready to meet the scrutiny of coders world-wide. Duffield has announced that on September 29, the source code of Dash’s Darksend technology will be opened and published. This is the final piece of the overall system to be opened up. Dash will then become the first fully open-source, decentralized, anonymous crypto-currency in the industry.

Future plans include the adoption of a new Instant Transactions technology which Duffield has described in his whitepaper. This technology will allow Dash to compete with other nearly instantaneous transaction systems such as credit cards. If successful, such an idea could revolutionize crypto-currencies by providing a decentralized payment system usable in retail stores and other face-to-face situations. The delay between sending and confirming transactions would be reduced from one hour (with currencies such as Bitcoin) to as little as twenty seconds. A future press release will describe the system in greater detail.

Download PDF

September 19, 2014
1 min read

Paper: Transaction Locking and Masternode Consensus

This paper introduces a new concept called transaction locking and masternode consensus. This technology will allow for crypto-currencies such as Dash to compete with nearly instantaneous transaction systems such as credit cards for point-of-sale situations while not relying on a centralized authority. If successful, such an idea could revolutionize cryptocurrency, by shortening the delay in confirmation of transactions from as long as an hour (with Bitcoin) to as little as twenty seconds

Full paper can be read at the link below:

August 22, 2014
2 min read

Please Update to v9.12.32 (Stable) or 10.12.32 (RC)

Due to the upgrade to a larger keypool in RC4, some users have reported slow client / lockups and in rare cases data corruption.

This only effects encrypted wallets and we have not seen this issue on freshly made wallets with the new keypool size at all.
If you’re running RC4 with an encrypted wallet please migrate your funds to a new wallet running 10.12.32.
This doesn’t effect the stable client at all (v0.9).

BIP32 (deterministic wallets based on seed phrases) would be really nice in this case because as long as you have the phrase,
restoring every possible key is as simple as restoring the wallet from the seed phrase.

This update is not mandatory for masternode operators

– Added a darksend overview box showing some generic information
– Display n/a in coincontrol for negative numbers
– force users to update to wallet version 60001 when they have an encrypted wallet

Source: Compile if you are running a pool, exchange, etc.

9.12.32 (Stable) Binaries: Does not include Darksend

Windows installer:
Mac OSX:

10.12.32 (RC) Binaries: Includes Darksend – Masternode Operators

Windows .exe:
Mac OSX: