I'm going to have to explain it aren't I? I wouldn't blame UdjinM6 for booting this into alts, the trashcan or off the interwebs altogether as part of it would interfere with the emission rate.
Ok, the petrodollar... A great invention at the time, we use huge amounts of energy so base an economy on the huge energy source that enabled it. Fast forward and it didn't work out so well, that huge energy source is depletable and it's only available in certain locations but the principle is sound so can the bugs be ironed out?
Well where does oil come from? We treat it as free, the cost only begins with extraction but that's not exactly true, it started out as organic matter and the energy for that originally came from the sun, just the same as any other sensible energy source, so how about using that?
That works out well, it turns out the cost of just about anything organic can be worked out in those terms, the chicken and the egg, it's just a matter of science and it gives a strong incentive for energy efficiency but there's a problem... Oil as fuel is horrendously expensive, the best figures available are 98 tons of biomass for every gallon of fuel oil so you can't interact directly with the foundation of the petrodollar economy, you'd need to spend billions of gallons of hydropower just to fill up the car.
It could be used for a renewable energy economy but there would be no incentive, not initially at least but that's just one option, anything that needed a lot of energy to produce would have a strong link and anything that needed just energy would be ideal, mining a cryptocurrency for example. That's the link, the energy cost to produce a coin, it naturally follows the dollar cost but it has a direct link to the energy used.
The most straightforward way I could see of doing that is destroying one to create the other at the current cost, ie. exchanging coins with a dollar value for units based on the energy used to create them and vis versa but maybe there are other ways. It could be given a dollar value but in terms of oil it would be practically worthless, as savings it would be worth the same for as long as the sun keeps shining.
EDIT: The reference for that 98 ton per gallon figure, not dug out the original paper yet: